Learn English with Quirks & Quarks

Love and Friendship

Published: 4.04.2022
Level 5   |   Time: 3:46
Accent: Canadian, British

TOEFL: Evolutionary anthropologist Anna Machin explains the importance of the love we have for our friends.


You can download the file [ HERE ].


triangle Directions 목표 Direcciones Instruções


    It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.

  2. WATCH the VIDEO

    The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.


    First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.

  4. WATCH and READ the SCRIPT

    Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.


    There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.


    Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.

  2. VER el VIDEO

    La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.


    Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.


    Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.


    Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.

  1. 어휘 읽기

    비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.

  2. 비디오 보기

    비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.

  3. 문제에 답하기

    먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.

  4. 비디오 보면서 대본 읽기

    대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.

  5. 액티비티 하기

    듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.


    É importante ler o vocabulário antes de assistir ao vídeo. Isso melhorará sua capacidade de entender o vídeo. Também ajudará você a entender como o novo vocabulário é usado naturalmente.


    Na primeira vez que assistir ao vídeo, tente entender a situação geral.


    Primeiro, tente responder a todas as perguntas de memória. Em seguida, assista novamente ao vídeo e tente responder às perguntas que você errou.


    Assista ao vídeo novamente enquanto lê o roteiro. Ler e ouvir ao mesmo tempo ajudará você a ouvir cada palavra individualmente e a melhorar sua precisão auditiva.


    Existem várias atividades diferentes que se concentram na preparação para o teste, vocabulário, gramática e estrutura de frases.

triangle Vocabulary 어휘 Vocabulário Vocabulario

  • ☐ ☐ ☐ reveal [v] - show
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ underestimate [v] - not value highly enough
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ place XXX on a pedestal [exp] - value XXX too much
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ neglect [v] - ignore
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ bio-behavioral synchrony [exp] - having synchronized breathing, heart rate, body temperature with a friend or partner
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ neurochemicals [n] - chemicals and hormones in the brain
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the West [n] - Western countries
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ restrained [adj] - not emotional or not passionate
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ go [v] - say
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ fulfill [v] - achieve, complete, do successfully
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ emotionally intimate [exp] - very close emotionally
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ be completely open [exp] - be 100% honest
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ fascinating [adj] - interesting
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ displaying [v] - acting, pretending
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ single habitation [exp] - living alone
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ affection [n] - touching in a loving way
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ dopamine [n] - a chemical in the body that is related to pleasure
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ shelter [n] - housing, a place to live
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ not get far in life [exp] - not be successful
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ fundamental [adj] - basic
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a needs pyramid [n] - a list of important needs in life ranked from most to least important

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression

triangle Comprehension Questions 이해력 검사 문제 Perguntas de compreensão Preguntas de comprensión

  1. People tend to underestimate love related to friendship.

  2. People have similar bio-behavioral reactions to spending time with their lover and spending time with their friends.

  3. People in Northern countries are hesitant to say they love their friends.

  4. People in Northern countries are hesitant to say they love their dogs.

  5. People in Mediterranean countries are hesitant to say they love their friends.

  6. The woman says that women tend to be more open with their friends than their lover.

  7. The woman says that men tend to be more open with their friends than their lover.

  8. The woman emphasizes that men need friendship to feel relaxed.

  9. The woman thinks that people tend to hide their true personalities from their friends.

  10. The woman says that love is only an emotion.

  11. The woman thinks that love is a fundamental need.

  12. Babies need love to develop properly.

triangle TOEFL Questions TOEFL 문제 Perguntas do TOEFL Preguntas de TOEFL

  1. What is the discussion mainly about?
    (A) How people maintain friendships in different cultures
    (B) The health benefits of having close friends
    (C) The importance of love related to friendship
    (D) How people around the world make friends

  2. What are TWO pieces of evidence that show that the love of friendship is similar to other types of love.
    [Choose 2 answers.]
    (A) The neurochemicals produced by love are present when people are with their friends.
    (B) People experience bio-behavioral synchrony with their friends.
    (C) People are not restrained when they are with their friends.
    (D) People feel neglect when they are not with their friends.

  3. Why does the woman say this?

    (A) It is difficult to achieve romantic and parental love.
    (B) Romantic and parental love are the most important types of love.
    (C) People tend to overvalue romantic and parental love.
    (D) Romantic and parental love are very common.

  4. According to the woman, people from which area are unlikely to express their love for their friends?
    (A) Northern Europe
    (B) North America
    (C) South America
    (D) The Mediterranean

  5. Why does the woman mention food, water, and air?
    (A) To explain how love develops over time
    (B) To show how love is similar to other fundamental needs
    (C) To show why love is the most important fundamental need
    (D) To give examples of needs that are more important than love

  6. Which of these points does the woman NOT make
    (A) Men depend on close friendships to relax.
    (B) Women are more emotionally open to their friends than their lover.
    (C) Women tend to be closer to their friends than men are.
    (D) People tend to feel more comfortable being themselves around close friends.

  7. What are TWO reasons that love is more like a need than an emotion?
    [Choose 2 answers.]
    (A) People cannot cooperate properly without love.
    (B) Babies who do not receive love do not develop properly.
    (C) Because of dopamine, love can be chemically addictive.
    (D) People need love to survive or be successful in life.
    (E) When people don't get love, they develop numerous health issues.

triangle Sentence Building 문장 만들기 Construção de sentença Construcción de oraciones [ ? ]


This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.

TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)


Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.

CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).


이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.

팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)


Esta atividade foi desenvolvida para melhorar a precisão e a complexidade das frases. A maioria dos alunos pode produzir as palavras-chave do conteúdo em uma frase. No entanto, eles têm dificuldade com precisão porque as palavras funcionais são difíceis ou podem parecer sem importância. Esta atividade ajudará os alunos a eliminar problemas com essas palavras funcionais, dando-lhes feedback imediato sobre os erros que estão cometendo. Também ajudará os alunos a desenvolver o uso de estruturas de sentenças mais naturais, variadas e complexas.

DICA: Diga a frase em voz alta. Observe os tipos de erro que você comete com frequência. Concentre-se nesses tipos de erros. (singular/plural, concordância sujeito-verbo, uso de artigos, preposições, gerúndios e infinitivos, cláusulas substantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, ordem das palavras e formas das palavras.)

Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.

Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.

Instrucciones: Escreva orações sobre o videoclipe usando as palavras-chave. Você pode alterar a forma da palavra ou adicionar palavras, mas não pode alterar a ordem das palavras.

지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.

Sentence 1

people / tend / place / romantic / and / parent / love / pedestal / but / underestimate / important / friendship

People tend to place romantic and parental love on a pedestal(,) but (they) underestimate the importance of friendship.

Sentence 2

people / North / Europe / country / restrain / about / admit / they / love / friend / than / people / Mediterranean / country

People in Northern European countries are more restrained about admitting (that) they love their friends than people in Mediterranean countries.

Sentence 3

far / bio-behavior / synchrony / concern / people / love / friend

As far as bio-behavioral synchrony is concerned, people love their friends.

Sentence 4

woman / tend / be / emotional / intimate / and / open / with / best / friend / than / lover

Women tend to be more emotionally intimate and open with their best friends than (they are) (with) their lover.

Sentence 5

for / man / best / friend / source / relax / and / release

For men, their best friends are a source of relaxation and release.

Sentence 6

people / feel / comfortable / be / self / with / friend / than / lover

People feel more comfortable being themselves with their friends than (they do)(with) their lover.

Sentence 7

Machin / believe / love / than / just / emotion

Machin believes (that) love is more than just an emotion.

Sentence 8

she / describe / love / motivate / meet / need

She describes love as a motivation meeting a need.

Sentence 9

she / believe / love / fundamental / need / similar / air / we / breathe / and / food / we / eat

She believes (that) love is a fundamental need, similar to the air (that) we breathe and the food (that) we eat.

triangle Discussion 논의 Questões de discussão Discusión

  1. How is love like a need? How is love NOT like a need? What is your opinion? Is love a fundamental need?
  2. How long can people live without air? Without water? Without food? Without shelter? How long can people live without love?
  3. Why does the woman (or why do you) think that we underestimate the love of friendship?
  4. The woman suggests that people reach bio-behavioral synchrony when they are with their friends? Do you think you have experienced this?
  5. Do you love your friends? Do you love your dog (or cat)?
  6. Do you think you are more open and honest with your friends than your partner (husband, wife, girlfriend, boyfriend)?
  7. Do you think that your country is more restrained (like Northern Europe) or open (like Mediterranean countries) about expressing love for friends?

triangle Script 대본 Roteiro Texto

Now friendship is another form of love that you spend time exploring in your book. Tell me what science has revealed there.

What's really interesting about friendship, and what I love about friendship, is in a way it's the love we underestimate, I think, a little bit.

You know, we place romantic love on a pedestal. We place parental love on a pedestal. But friendship, we kind of neglect a little bit.

But what all the science is showing is that as far, as our brains are concerned, as far as our bio-behavioral synchrony is concerned, as far as the neurochemicals that are released when you interact with your friends, you love them.

And maybe partly I think here in the West, and particularly in the northern countries, we are quite restrained about saying that we love our friends.

It's so funny. I spoke to quite a lot of British people and said to them, "Do you love your friends?"

And they would go, "Oh I suppose so." And then I would say to them, "Do you love your dog?"

"Oh yeah. You know I love my dog."

And it's just funny we have this slightly odd attitude to it.

Whereas actually, when I spoke to people in the more Mediterranean countries or maybe the South Americas, they are much more passionate about their friends.

But what I love about friends is friends fulfill something that romantic love in particular can't fulfill.

For women, a study we did at Oxford showed that women are more emotionally intimate with their best friends than they are with their lover. They are more likely to be completely open with their best friend and find that their best friend is their greatest emotional support, which I find fascinating.

And when we look at men and they talk about their best friends, their best friends are a source of relaxation and release. They're somewhere where they can truly be themselves.

So we kind of got these two people in a romantic relationship who maybe are still displaying a little bit to each other to keep each other attracted. But when they're with their best friends, they can truly be who they are. And I think that's really interesting.

And certainly what now we're looking particularly more more and more people being single. You know, the rates of single habitation are going up. People are choosing not to to be in relationships. Friends, in a way, are coming forward to replace that romantic partner for those people. Their friends are really their family and their lover.

You compare our need for love to our need for food and air. So why ultimately is it so important to us?

This is the argument that says love is not an emotion. And love is not an emotion love is far too complex to be an emotion. Even people who research emotions are like, "Oh yeah. We can't put it in that box."

It contains emotion. Obviously, it contains passion and affection and anger and fear and all these different emotions. But it contains so many other things.

And really if we look at it, and particularly its role in motivating us and the role that dopamine in particular has in motivating us, it seems to be more a motivation meeting a need than it is in fact an emotion.

And if we look at the needs, the fundamental needs you have in life, they are you know water, food, shelter, safety. And there is a big argument now to add to that, love. Because if you don't have love, whether it's cooperating with your friends or it's love for your partner or your children, you're not going to get very far in life. You're not going to survive. You know, babies need love because otherwise they don't survive, or they are developmentally very damaged.

So we argue now that actually love is a fundamental need that sits at the very basis of that need pyramid. And it sits alongside things like the air we breathe and the water we drink and the food we eat. It's a fundamental life need.

So love it or hate it, you can't live without it.