TOEFL: Evolutionary anthropologist Anna Machin explains why love has many of the physiological addictive properties of drug addicition.
You can download the file [ HERE ].
It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.
지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.
human / very / cooperate / in / term / how / they / cooperate / and / long / cooperate
Humans are very cooperative in terms of how they cooperate and how long they cooperate.
because / human / baby / born / too / soon / they / very / depend / parent
Because human babies are born too soon, they are very dependent on their parents.
therefore / human / need / cooperate / raise / child
Therefore, humans need to cooperate (in order) to raise (their) children.
love / motivate / human / adult / maintain / survive / critical / relationship
Love motivates human adults to maintain survival critical relationships.
there / four / neurochemical / related / love / oxytocin / dopamine / serotonin / beta / endorphin
There are four neurochemicals (that are) related to love: oxytocin, dopamine, serotonin, and beta endorphin.
human / become / addict / these / chemical / so / they / go / withdrawal / when / they / separate / people / they / love
Humans become addicted to these chemicals, so they go through withdrawal when they are separated from (the) people (whom/that) they love.
beta / endorphin / most / addictive / four / neurochemical
Beta endorphin is the most addictive of the four neurochemicals.
when / person / together / someone / she / he / love / they / mirror / other / term / body / behavior / body / language
When a person is together with someone (whom/that) she or he loves, they mirror each other in terms of (their) body behavior and (their) body language.
they / also / start / mirror / other / term / heart / rate / body / temperature / blood / pressure
They also start to mirror each other in terms of heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure.
neurochemical / level / brain / also / sychronize
The neurochemical levels in their brains also sychronize.
The neurochemical levels in their brains also become sychronized.
these / reaction / ensure / people / remain / as / tight / bond / possible
These reactions ensure (that) people remain as tightly bonded as possible.
Let's begin with the evolution of love. So why did nature equip us with this Behavior?
Okay so we are arguably the most cooperative species on the planet - both in terms of how many different sorts of people we cooperate with, all the different ways we have to cooperate, and how long those cooperative relationships last.
You know, we can be with people for decades and decades and decades.
And this is partly due to a sort of an anomaly an anatomical quirk that occurred. We've got really massive brains and we walk on two legs, and therefore, for example, we need each other's help to raise our children because our children are very dependent. They're born far too soon so that that big brain can fit through the birth canal. So we have very dependent children.
And we if you think of all the people who feed into your children's lives - your friends, your family, professionals, whoever it might be, we are cooperating to raise those children.
The problem is cooperation is really stressful. We have to compete for resources. We have to coordinate with each other. We have to exist in these really stressful hierarchies. So we need something that's going to motivate and reward us for carrying out these survival critical relationships even though they're really really tough sometimes.
And the answer to that evolution came up with is love.
So basically love is biological bribery. It's something that we get given to reward us and and make sure that we carry on trying.
Now since evolution has equipped us for love, it's clearly got some deep biological roots. And some of these roots work like, as you write in your book, like an addiction. Tell me about that.
Yeah. So we have four different neurochemicals that come into the mix when you are falling in love and when you're in love. And some of them, you will have heard of. So we've got oxytocin, dopamine, serotonin, and beta endorphin.
And they variously motivate and reward you for starting relationships. And then they addict you to the person that you're with to make sure that you stick around. And that if you separate from them for whatever reason, you go out to work whatever it might be, you go on a work trip, you start to crave that person like an addict craves heroin. And that draws you back to the person.
And the reason why they are addictive, and the reason why beta endorphin in particular is so addictive, is it's your body's opiate.
So it is a highly addictive chemical like heroin, like morphine, and it uses the same mechanism to make sure you stick with the people you love.
So the chemistry between two people really is chemistry?
Oh completely. Yes. What you feel when you when you have that chemical spark, what you're feeling in particular, are oxytocin and dopamine kicking off in your brain.
So when people talk about chemistry, that's that's what they're talking about. They're talking about the natural chemical reaction going on in your brain.
Well if love is an addiction like that, you compare the breakdown of a relationship to going cold turkey. Is it really like that?
It is because you basically go into a form of chemical and opiate withdrawal. And so you have this actual physical sensation of pain that occurs, but you also obviously have that psychological pain which comes from having been very closely attached to someone. And you undergo a really intense separation distress.
How else is our biology built for love?
We have this amazing phenomenon which is known as biobehavioural synchrony. And I think, in one sense, this sums up to me how critical love is to our survival.
The way biobehavioural synchrony works is is when you're with somebody you love, and it might be your lover, it might be a close friend, it might be your child, what you notice with people, and you will have noticed this when they're together, people mirror each other in terms of their their body behavior, their body language.
But if you look inside their body, what's happening at the same time is their physiology comes into synchrony. So their heart rate, their body temperature, their blood pressure, also match each other.
And then if you look into the brain, we see matching synchrony in activations of the brain, so the areas of the brain that are firing off. And we see synchrony in the levels of those neurochemicals we've been talking about.
And so what's happened is evolution thinks this is so critical that you bond to this person as tightly as possible, that it's actually engaged every mechanism in your body to make sure that you are as tightly bonded to that other person as possible. And that's really how important love is.
I think it's the most astonishing phenomenon.