TOEFL: A discussion on the evolutionary benefits drinking alcohol has brought to humans.
You can download the file [ HERE ].
It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.
지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.
most / obvious / reason / people / drink / because / fun
The most obvious reason (that) people drink is because it is fun.
drink / help / produce / endorphin / which / like / natural / opiate
Drinking helps produce endorphins, which are like natural opiates.
expert / believe / drink / must / have / some / other / benefit / past / civilization
Experts believe (that) drinking must have had some other benefits for past civilizations.
Gobekli Tempeh / archaeology / site / east / Turkey / discover / 25 / year
Gobekli Tempeh is an archaeological site in east(ern) Turkey that was discovered 25 years ago.
Gobekli Tempeh / similar / structure / Stonehenge / but / it / twice / old
Gobekli Tempeh has a similar structure to Stonehenge, but it is twice as old.
Gobekli Tempeh / neither / residence / agriculture / site
Gobekli Tempeh was neither a residential [nor/or] (an) agricultural site.
pillar / Gobekli Tempeh / contain / draw / depict / people / drink / play / music
The pillars [of/at/in/from] Gobekli Tempeh contain drawings [that depict/depicting] people drinking and playing music.
archaeologist / discover / enormous / vat / look / they / make / hold / ancient / beer / wine
Archaeologists (have) discovered enormous vats that look like they were made to hold ancient beer and wine.
draw / food / alcohol / encourage / large / group / people / work / together / and / build / Gobekli Tempeh.
The draw of food and alcohol encouraged large groups of people to work together and build Gobekli Tempeh.
woman / state / human / like / bee / ant / than / chimpanzee / some / way
The woman states (that) humans are more like bees and ants than chimpanzees in some ways.
past / alcohol / may / social / disinhibit / human / just / enough / work / together
In the past, alcohol may have socially disinhibited humans just enough to work together.
woman / conclude / alcohol / probably / play / similar / role / religion / ancient / society
The woman concludes (that) alcohol probably played a similar role [as/to] religion in ancient societies.
So tell me Kate, why do we drink?
So let me get the really obvious answer out of the way. And then we'll get to the less obvious answer. The obvious answer is we do it because it's fun.
Scientists have recently learned that alcohol has a really large capacity to produce endorphins. Endorphins of course or the natural opiates of the body produces, so obviously we want to do it.
But that kind of raises a second larger question that's a bit trickier, which is why has Evolution set us up to do this thing that is so obviously bad for us, right?
And people who have looked at this have sort have made the point that there must have been something it was doing that was really good that was balancing out the harms. Or otherwise, evolution would have fixed this, right? It would have favored people who hated the way alcohol tasted, for example. It didn't do that, so what could have been going on? And this stuff dovetails nicely with some recent archaeological findings
So about 25 years ago, a site was identified in Eastern Turkey. Gobekli Tempeh it's called. It is, we think, the earliest human temple to have been found. It's 10 to 12 thousand years old. That means it predates the very early part of the Agricultural Revolution. It's not only twice as old as Stonehenge, it's made of these gigantic pillars of stone that would have taken hundreds of people working together to put together.
And what's perplexing about this site is it wasn't a place where anybody was farming. It wasn't a place where anybody was living. As far as the archaeological record suggests, it was a place where people were partying. These stones have these elaborate drawings of people playing music, and it looks like drinking alcohol. And they've also found these enormous vats that look like they were made to hold really old school beer and wine.
It's basically an ancient Brewery.
It's basically not an ancient brewery. It is like an ancient club, right?
So archaeologists have tried to puzzle this out think that what was happening is that hunter-gatherers were coming from all directions periodically to have these big alcohol-fueled feests. And presumably the draw of the food in the booze got them to cooperate and put up these gigantic pillars of stone. It probably lead a lot of authority to the people who organized the whole enterprise. And it very likely motivated people to want to settle down and cooperate.
I mean you have these sort of fractious unrelated groups of people. It's not obvious why they would want to get together, but partying seems like actually a pretty good answer. Why is it significant that long ago that people were getting together to drink and party.
Well, I mean if you think about it, one of the really important things that we have to do to succeed as humans is work together. So, we are in some ways more bees or ants than we are like chimpanzees, right? Chimpanzees are totally fractious and competitive, and you couldn't possibly put thousands of chimps together and like expect to have a party or like a bunch of stones.
Humans have to do this, right? Human civilization requires people to cooperate, and there's a line of thinking that, you know, alcohol may have helped us to do that. It sort of socially disinhibited us just enough to sort of cooperate.
In a way, it may be similar to what religion did for early humans. I mean, essentially just as religions gave people something to rally around, alcohol may have played a pretty similar function.