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Why do we drink?

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Published: 7.10.2021
Level 6   |   Time: 4:26
Accent: American

TOEFL: A discussion on the evolutionary benefits drinking alcohol has brought to humans.

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You can download the file [ HERE ].

    

triangle Directions 목표 Direcciones Instruções


  1. READ the VOCABULARY

    It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.

  2. WATCH the VIDEO

    The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.

  3. ANSWER the QUESTIONS

    First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.

  4. WATCH and READ the SCRIPT

    Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.

  5. DO the ACTIVITIES

    There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.

  1. LEA el VOCABULARIO

    Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.

  2. VER el VIDEO

    La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.

  3. RESPONDE a las PREGUNTAS

    Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.

  4. MIRAR Y LEER

    Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.

  5. HACER LAS ACTIVIDADES

    Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.

  1. 어휘 읽기

    비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.

  2. 비디오 보기

    비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.

  3. 문제에 답하기

    먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.

  4. 비디오 보면서 대본 읽기

    대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.

  5. 액티비티 하기

    듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.

  1. LER o VOCABULÁRIO

    É importante ler o vocabulário antes de assistir ao vídeo. Isso melhorará sua capacidade de entender o vídeo. Também ajudará você a entender como o novo vocabulário é usado naturalmente.

  2. ASSISTA ao VÍDEO

    Na primeira vez que assistir ao vídeo, tente entender a situação geral.

  3. RESPONDA às PERGUNTAS

    Primeiro, tente responder a todas as perguntas de memória. Em seguida, assista novamente ao vídeo e tente responder às perguntas que você errou.

  4. ASSISTA e LEIA o SCRIPT

    Assista ao vídeo novamente enquanto lê o roteiro. Ler e ouvir ao mesmo tempo ajudará você a ouvir cada palavra individualmente e a melhorar sua precisão auditiva.

  5. FAÇA as ATIVIDADES

    Existem várias atividades diferentes que se concentram na preparação para o teste, vocabulário, gramática e estrutura de frases.

triangle Vocabulary 어휘 Vocabulário Vocabulario


  • ☐ ☐ ☐ get (something) out of the way [exp] - say/do something first so I can focus on something more important
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ capacity [n] - ability
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ endorphins [n] - chemicals produced by the body to reduce stress and pain
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ opiates [n] - a drug that makes you feel very happy (opioids)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ set (us) up [phv] - prepare (us)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ dovetail [v] - connect, join together
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ archaeological findings [n] - things discovered by archaeologists
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ Gobekli Tempeh [n] - an ancient temple near Turkey
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ predate [v] - comes before (in time)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ perplexing [adj] - confusing
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the Agricultural Revolution [n] - when humans started farming
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ gigantic pillars [n] - large columns
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ Stonehenge [n] - a famous site in England consisting of large rocks
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ elaborate [adj] - complex
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a vat [n] - a large tank or tub used to hold liquid (like beer or wine)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ old-school [adj] - old-fashioned, traditional
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a brewery [n] - a place where beer is made (brewed)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ puzzle (something) out [phv] - figure (something) out
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ hunter-gatherers [n] - humans that find food by hunting (not farming)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ periodically [adv] - occasionally, from time to time
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the draw [n] - the attraction
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ booze [n] - alcohol
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ an enterprise [n] - a business or complex activity
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ settle down [phv] - stop moving, live in one place
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ fractious [adj] - don't work well together, difficult to control
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a line of thinking [exp] - a theory, a way of thinking
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ socially disinhibited [exp] - feeling free, very social, not shy
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ rally around [phv] - support, get excited about

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression



triangle Comprehension Questions 이해력 검사 문제 Perguntas de compreensão Preguntas de comprensión


  1. The _____ reason people drink is because it is fun.
    obvious
    hidden
    controversial
    original

  2. Drinking _____ the production of endorphins.
    promotes
    restricts
    prevents

  3. Experts believe that alcohol must have some other _____ effects.
    positive
    negative

  4. Gobekli Tempeh, in eastern Turkey, was discovered _____ years ago.
    5
    10
    12
    25

  5. Gobekli Tempeh is believed to be the _____ human temple ever discovered.
    largest
    oldest
    most important

  6. Gobekli Tempeh is _____ Stonehenge.
    almost as old as
    half as old as
    a little older than
    two times older than

  7. Gobekli Tempeh _____ an agricultural site.
    was
    was not

  8. Gobekli Tempeh _____ an place where many people lived.
    was
    was not

  9. The stones at Gobekli Tempeh are covered with drawings of people _____ and _____.
    farming
    dancing
    drinking
    playing music
    working together

  10. The woman compares Gobekli Tempeh to an ancient _____.
    bar
    club
    brewery
    factory

  11. The attraction of food and alcohol encouraged people to ____.
    fight
    drink
    play music
    work together

  12. The woman states that humans are more like bees and ants than chimpanzees _____.
    historically
    biologically
    physically
    socially

  13. Chimpanzees are too fractious and competitive to work together _____.
    for a long time
    in large groups
    without alcohol
    during most studies

  14. According to the woman, alcohol socially disinhibits humans so that they can _____.
    live together
    cooperate
    work hard
    procreate

  15. Alcohol likely had a similar function as _____ for early humans.
    government
    religion
    medicine
    drugs
    war



triangle TOEFL Questions TOEFL 문제 Perguntas do TOEFL Preguntas de TOEFL


  1. What is the discussion mainly about?
    (A) The social benefits of drinking
    (B) A new archaeological site in Turkey
    (C) How evolution favors people who don't drink
    (D) The history of alcohol

  2. Why does the woman think that drinking must have some more positive effects than just pleasure?
    (A) Because alcohol is difficult to produce.
    (B) Because drinking promotes the production of endorphins.
    (C) Because humans continue to drink despite its harms.
    (D) Because alcohol is addictive.

  3. Which of these statements about Gobekli Tempeh are NOT true?
    (A) It is much older than Stonehenge.
    (B) It was discovered about 25 years ago.
    (C) It was in an agricultural area.
    (D) It is one of the earliest temples ever discovered.

  4. What evidence suggests that Gobekli Tempeh was primarily used for partying and celebration?
    [Choose 4 answers.]
    (A) No one lived in the area.
    (B) No one farmed in the area.
    (C) It contained numerous large vats.
    (D) It has many painting of people playing music and drinking.
    (E) It contains numerous large pillars.
    (F) It may be where beer was first made.

  5. Why does the woman say this?

    (A) To show that alcohol has been produced and consumed for a long time
    (B) To show its similarity to other archaeological sites
    (C) To show that the site required cooperation among large groups of people to build
    (D) To show why people traveled from far away to visit the site

  6. Why does the woman mention bees and ants?
    (A) Alcohol has a similar effect on bees and ants.
    (B) Humans are similar to bees and ants in their capacity to work together.
    (C) Bees and ants were used in the production of alcohol by ancient peoples.
    (D) There is archaeological evidence that bees and ants were present at Gobekli Tempeh.

  7. What does the woman say about chimpanzees?
    (A) They have difficulty working together in large groups.
    (B) They are affected in similar way by alcohol to humans.
    (C) They tend to cooperate better when they consume alcohol.
    (D) Their remains have been found at Gobekli Tempeh.

  8. Why does the woman compare drinking to religion?
    (A) Ancient religions often used alcohol in their ceremonies.
    (B) Only humans have alcohol and religion.
    (C) Both alcohol and religion help people work together.
    (D) Both alcohol and religion can lead to violence and war.

  9. What reasons for drinking does the woman mention?
    [Choose 3 answers.]
    (A) It is fun.
    (B) It helps the body produce endorphins.
    (C) It helps the body produce opiates.
    (D) It helps humans cooperate.
    (E) It helps humans create art and music.



triangle Sentence Building (Summary) 문장 만들기 Construção de sentença Construcción de oraciones [ ? ]

Summary

This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.

TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)

Resumen

Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.

CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).

요약

이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.

팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)

Resumo

Esta atividade foi desenvolvida para melhorar a precisão e a complexidade das frases. A maioria dos alunos pode produzir as palavras-chave do conteúdo em uma frase. No entanto, eles têm dificuldade com precisão porque as palavras funcionais são difíceis ou podem parecer sem importância. Esta atividade ajudará os alunos a eliminar problemas com essas palavras funcionais, dando-lhes feedback imediato sobre os erros que estão cometendo. Também ajudará os alunos a desenvolver o uso de estruturas de sentenças mais naturais, variadas e complexas.

DICA: Diga a frase em voz alta. Observe os tipos de erro que você comete com frequência. Concentre-se nesses tipos de erros. (singular/plural, concordância sujeito-verbo, uso de artigos, preposições, gerúndios e infinitivos, cláusulas substantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, ordem das palavras e formas das palavras.)


Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.

Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.

Instrucciones: Escreva orações sobre o videoclipe usando as palavras-chave. Você pode alterar a forma da palavra ou adicionar palavras, mas não pode alterar a ordem das palavras.

지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.



Sentence 1

most / obvious / reason / people / drink / because / fun


The most obvious reason (that) people drink is because it is fun.



Sentence 2

drink / help / produce / endorphin / which / like / natural / opiate


Drinking helps produce endorphins, which are like natural opiates.



Sentence 3

expert / believe / drink / must / have / some / other / benefit / past / civilization


Experts believe (that) drinking must have had some other benefits for past civilizations.



Sentence 4

Gobekli Tempeh / archaeology / site / east / Turkey / discover / 25 / year


Gobekli Tempeh is an archaeological site in east(ern) Turkey that was discovered 25 years ago.



Sentence 5

Gobekli Tempeh / similar / structure / Stonehenge / but / it / twice / old


Gobekli Tempeh has a similar structure to Stonehenge, but it is twice as old.



Sentence 6

Gobekli Tempeh / neither / residence / agriculture / site


Gobekli Tempeh was neither a residential [nor/or] (an) agricultural site.



Sentence 7

pillar / Gobekli Tempeh / contain / draw / depict / people / drink / play / music


The pillars [of/at/in/from] Gobekli Tempeh contain drawings [that depict/depicting] people drinking and playing music.



Sentence 8

archaeologist / discover / enormous / vat / look / they / make / hold / ancient / beer / wine


Archaeologists (have) discovered enormous vats that look like they were made to hold ancient beer and wine.



Sentence 9

draw / food / alcohol / encourage / large / group / people / work / together / and / build / Gobekli Tempeh.


The draw of food and alcohol encouraged large groups of people to work together and build Gobekli Tempeh.



Sentence 10

woman / state / human / like / bee / ant / than / chimpanzee / some / way


The woman states (that) humans are more like bees and ants than chimpanzees in some ways.



Sentence 11

past / alcohol / may / social / disinhibit / human / just / enough / work / together


In the past, alcohol may have socially disinhibited humans just enough to work together.



Sentence 12

woman / conclude / alcohol / probably / play / similar / role / religion / ancient / society


The woman concludes (that) alcohol probably played a similar role [as/to] religion in ancient societies.



triangle Discussion 논의 Questões de discussão Discusión


  1. According to the lecture, what are the benefits of drinking? In your opinion, what are some other benefits?
  2. What are the disadvantages of drinking for an individual?
  3. What are the disadvantages of drinking for society?
  4. Do you think human society would be better or worse overall without alcohol? Why? (i.e. Is prohibition a good idea?)
  5. The woman implies that humans are similar to bees and ants socially. Why does she say this? What is she referring to? Do you agree?
  6. How does your personality change when you drink? Do you become more or less social? Friendly? Talkative? Aggressive?
  7. How often do you drink? How much do you drink? What do you usually drink?
  8. What's your favorite beer? What's your favorite cocktail? What type of wine do you like (red or white, sweet or dry)?
  9. What country produces the best beer? What country produces the best wine?

triangle Script 대본 Roteiro Texto


So tell me Kate, why do we drink?

So let me get the really obvious answer out of the way. And then we'll get to the less obvious answer. The obvious answer is we do it because it's fun.

Scientists have recently learned that alcohol has a really large capacity to produce endorphins. Endorphins of course or the natural opiates of the body produces, so obviously we want to do it.

But that kind of raises a second larger question that's a bit trickier, which is why has Evolution set us up to do this thing that is so obviously bad for us, right?

And people who have looked at this have sort have made the point that there must have been something it was doing that was really good that was balancing out the harms. Or otherwise, evolution would have fixed this, right? It would have favored people who hated the way alcohol tasted, for example. It didn't do that, so what could have been going on? And this stuff dovetails nicely with some recent archaeological findings

So about 25 years ago, a site was identified in Eastern Turkey. Gobekli Tempeh it's called. It is, we think, the earliest human temple to have been found. It's 10 to 12 thousand years old. That means it predates the very early part of the Agricultural Revolution. It's not only twice as old as Stonehenge, it's made of these gigantic pillars of stone that would have taken hundreds of people working together to put together.

And what's perplexing about this site is it wasn't a place where anybody was farming. It wasn't a place where anybody was living. As far as the archaeological record suggests, it was a place where people were partying. These stones have these elaborate drawings of people playing music, and it looks like drinking alcohol. And they've also found these enormous vats that look like they were made to hold really old school beer and wine.

It's basically an ancient Brewery.

It's basically not an ancient brewery. It is like an ancient club, right?

Yeah.

So archaeologists have tried to puzzle this out think that what was happening is that hunter-gatherers were coming from all directions periodically to have these big alcohol-fueled feests. And presumably the draw of the food in the booze got them to cooperate and put up these gigantic pillars of stone. It probably lead a lot of authority to the people who organized the whole enterprise. And it very likely motivated people to want to settle down and cooperate.

I mean you have these sort of fractious unrelated groups of people. It's not obvious why they would want to get together, but partying seems like actually a pretty good answer. Why is it significant that long ago that people were getting together to drink and party.

Well, I mean if you think about it, one of the really important things that we have to do to succeed as humans is work together. So, we are in some ways more bees or ants than we are like chimpanzees, right? Chimpanzees are totally fractious and competitive, and you couldn't possibly put thousands of chimps together and like expect to have a party or like a bunch of stones.

Humans have to do this, right? Human civilization requires people to cooperate, and there's a line of thinking that, you know, alcohol may have helped us to do that. It sort of socially disinhibited us just enough to sort of cooperate.

In a way, it may be similar to what religion did for early humans. I mean, essentially just as religions gave people something to rally around, alcohol may have played a pretty similar function.