Learn English with The Ezra Klein Show

Sleep & Loneliness

Published: 4.30.2018
Level 6   |   Time: 3:08
Accent: Canadian

TOEFL: A discussion on how loneliness affects depression, and how loneliness can be measured by sleep patterns.


You can download the file [ HERE ].


triangle Directions 목표 Direcciones Instruções


    It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.

  2. WATCH the VIDEO

    The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.


    First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.

  4. WATCH and READ the SCRIPT

    Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.


    There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.


    Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.

  2. VER el VIDEO

    La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.


    Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.


    Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.


    Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.

  1. 어휘 읽기

    비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.

  2. 비디오 보기

    비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.

  3. 문제에 답하기

    먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.

  4. 비디오 보면서 대본 읽기

    대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.

  5. 액티비티 하기

    듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.


    É importante ler o vocabulário antes de assistir ao vídeo. Isso melhorará sua capacidade de entender o vídeo. Também ajudará você a entender como o novo vocabulário é usado naturalmente.


    Na primeira vez que assistir ao vídeo, tente entender a situação geral.


    Primeiro, tente responder a todas as perguntas de memória. Em seguida, assista novamente ao vídeo e tente responder às perguntas que você errou.


    Assista ao vídeo novamente enquanto lê o roteiro. Ler e ouvir ao mesmo tempo ajudará você a ouvir cada palavra individualmente e a melhorar sua precisão auditiva.


    Existem várias atividades diferentes que se concentram na preparação para o teste, vocabulário, gramática e estrutura de frases.

triangle Vocabulary 어휘 Vocabulário Vocabulario

  • ☐ ☐ ☐ anxiety [n] - nervousness, fear
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ factors [n] - causes
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ determinants [n] - causes
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ put it [exp] - say
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ savannas [n] - grasslands
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ band together [exp] - form groups or tribes
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a tribe [n] - a cooperative group
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ an instinct [n] - a natural tendency
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a hive [n] - a bee's home
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ disband [v] - separate
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a crisis [n] - a big problem
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ unprecedentedly [adv] - the most ever
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ be bought in [exp] - believe
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ ring in my head [exp] - be important or memorable to me
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ slightly [adv] - a little
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ rouse [v] - wake up
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ vigilant [adj] - awake and watchful
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a thesis [n] - a theory
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a proxy [n] - a replacement, substitution
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ off the grid [exp] - away from modern society
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the Hutterites [n] - a communal group of humans in the US who live without modern technology
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ virtually [adv] - almost
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ inevitable [adj] - unavoidable
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ malady [n] - illness, sickness

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression

triangle Comprehension Questions 이해력 검사 문제 Perguntas de compreensão Preguntas de comprensión

  1. How many (known) biological causes are there for depression?

  2. How many (known) environmental causes are there for depression?

  3. Which type of cause is loneliness?

  4. What were our ancestors very good at?
    working together
    avoiding depression

  5. How are modern humans unique?
    They have trouble sleeping.
    They are trying to disband their tribes.
    They don't live in the savannahs anymore.

  6. How many close friends did most Americans say they had in the past?

  7. How many close friends do many Americans say they have today?

  8. Why did our ancestors feel anxious and depressed when they were alone?
    They were in danger.
    They were very social.
    They couldn't find food.

  9. How can scientists measure people's loneliness?
    By counting how many close friends people have
    By counting how often people wake up at night
    By counting how much time people spend alone

  10. What is a micro-awakening?
    A realization that we are not alone
    Waking up a little while sleeping
    A machine that measures sleep patterns

  11. When would our ancestors experience micro-awakenings?
    When they were depressed
    When they were with a lot of people
    When they were not with their tribe

  12. What type of people experience the most micro-awakenings?
    Lonely people
    Happy people
    Friendly people

  13. What is unique about the Hutterites?
    They don't use electricity.
    They can't read.
    They experience a lot of micro-awakenings.
    They experience almost no micro-awakenings.

triangle TOEFL Questions TOEFL 문제 Perguntas do TOEFL Preguntas de TOEFL

  1. What is the discussion mainly about?
    (A) The evolution of human sleep patterns
    (B) The importance of being in a cooperative tribe or group
    (C) The difference between animal groups and human tribes
    (D) Ways to improve sleep quality

  2. Which of these statements is not mentioned by the speakers?
    (A) Loneliness is one of the most important causes of depression.
    (B) There are more biological than environmental factors causing depression.
    (C) Modern humans seem to be separating from their tribes.
    (D) Ancient humans were good at working together.

  3. Why does the man talk about our human ancestors?
    (A) To show how much our society has advanced
    (B) To talk about why our human ancestors were so depressed
    (C) To show how our human ancestors were able to hunt larger animals
    (D) To show the importance of cooperation for human evolution

  4. What does the man mean when he says this?

    (A) All animals need to be in groups.
    (B) Both humans and bees prefer to live in cooperative groups.
    (C) Bees are much more collaborative than humans.
    (D) Humans are much more collaborative than bees.

  5. What does the man mean when he says this?

    (A) Modern humans have fewer close friends than in the past.
    (B) Most modern humans don't have any friends.
    (C) It is more important for modern humans to have a tribe.
    (D) Humans in the past were less likely to have close friends.

  6. What causes high levels of micro-awakenings?
    (A) Being in large groups
    (B) Poor diet
    (C) Being injured
    (D) Loneliness

  7. Why were our solitary human ancestors more likely to wake up during the night?
    (A) They didn't have a group to protect them.
    (B) They were more likely to be hungry.
    (C) They didn't have electricity.
    (D) They didn't have someone to talk to.

  8. Why does the man talk about the Hutterites?
    (A) To show how being in a tribe improves sleep quality
    (B) To show how modern technology harms sleep quality
    (C) To explain why ancient humans felt lonely
    (D) To urge people to copy their social structure

triangle Sentence Building 문장 만들기 Construção de sentença Construcción de oraciones [ ? ]


This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.

TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)


Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.

CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).


이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.

팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)


Esta atividade foi desenvolvida para melhorar a precisão e a complexidade das frases. A maioria dos alunos pode produzir as palavras-chave do conteúdo em uma frase. No entanto, eles têm dificuldade com precisão porque as palavras funcionais são difíceis ou podem parecer sem importância. Esta atividade ajudará os alunos a eliminar problemas com essas palavras funcionais, dando-lhes feedback imediato sobre os erros que estão cometendo. Também ajudará os alunos a desenvolver o uso de estruturas de sentenças mais naturais, variadas e complexas.

DICA: Diga a frase em voz alta. Observe os tipos de erro que você comete com frequência. Concentre-se nesses tipos de erros. (singular/plural, concordância sujeito-verbo, uso de artigos, preposições, gerúndios e infinitivos, cláusulas substantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, ordem das palavras e formas das palavras.)

Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.

Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.

Instrucciones: Escreva orações sobre o videoclipe usando as palavras-chave. Você pode alterar a forma da palavra ou adicionar palavras, mas não pode alterar a ordem das palavras.

지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.

Sentence 1

there / science / evidence / nine / cause / depression / anxiety

There is scientific evidence for nine causes of depression and anxiety.

Sentence 2

two / those / factor / biology / and / seven / related / lifestyle

Two of those factors are biological, and seven are related to lifestyle.

Sentence 3

some / but / not / all / those / factor / increase

Some, but not all, of those factors have increased.

Sentence 4

our / ancient / ancestor / good / band / together / cooperate / tribe

Our ancient ancestors were good at banding together in cooperative tribes.

Sentence 5

our / ancestor / successful / because / they / much / better / work / together / than / large / animal / they / hunt

Our ancestors were successful because they were much better at working together than the large(r) animals (that) they hunted.

Sentence 6

recent / study / many / people / say / they / have / no / one / they / could / call / crisis

In a recent study, many people said (that) they had no one (that) they could call in crisis.

Sentence 7

when / our / ancestor / isolate / tribe / they / likely / depressed / because / they / mortal / danger

When our ancestors were isolated from their tribe(s), they were likely depressed because they were in mortal danger.

Sentence 8

Lonesomeness / can / measure / by / test / how / often / people / wake / their / sleep

Lonesomeness can be measured by testing how often people wake up in their sleep.

Sentence 9

people / lonely / experience / high / level / micro-awakening

People [who/that] are lonely experience high levels of micro-awakenings.

Sentence 10

our / ancestor / have / no / tribe / likely / experience / numerous / micro-awakening

Our ancestors [who/that] had no tribe likely experienced numerous micro-awakenings.

Sentence 11

Hutterites / who / live / off / grid / experience / virtual / no / micro-awakening / their / sleep

The Hutterites, who live off the grid, experience virtually no micro-awakenings in their sleep.

triangle Discussion 논의 Questões de discussão Discusión

  1. Explain why our hunter-gather ancestors might have experienced micro-awakenings if they didn't have a tribe.
  2. Do you have a tribe? How many people are in it?
  3. How many people can you call and depend on in a crisis?
  4. How many hours per week do you spend with people (socializing or working together)?
  5. How many hours per week do you spend awake and alone?
  6. Do you consider time spent talking online (Zoom or Teams) as time alone or a social situation?
  7. Do you think you experience many micro-awakenings while you sleep? If so, do you think it is related to loneliness and depression?

triangle Script 대본 Roteiro Texto

So one of the things I learned in all the research is that there are these, there is scientific evidence for nine causes of depression and anxiety. There may well be other causes for which we dont yet have evidence. Two of those courses are biological. There are things that in your biology can make you much more sensitive to depression and anxiety, and seven are factors in the way we live. And I dont think all of those factors have increased, but I do think some of them have increased.

So I'll give you one example of one of the most powerful determinants I think which is loneliness. Professor John Cacioppo at the University of Chicago, who I've interviewed a lot, has proven that loneliness causes depression and anxiety for a very kind of simple reason. As he put it to me, if you think about the circumstances where human beings evolved right. We exist, we're able to sit in this studio for one key reason. Our ancestors on the savannas of Africa were incredibly good at one thing. They were incredibly good at banding together in cooperative tribes. They weren't bigger than the animals they took down; they were much better at working together.

Every instinct human beings have is to be in a co-operative tribe. And you know just like bees need a hive, humans need a tribe. And there's really strong evidence that we are the first humans to really try to disband our tribes.
There's a study that asks Americans, "How many close friends do you have who you can call on in a crisis?" And when they started doing it years ago, the most common answer was five. Today the most common answer, it's not the average but the most common answer, is none. So we've got this unprecedentedly lonely society. And as Professor Cacioppo put it to me, you think about the circumstances where we evolved. If you were alone and separated from the tribe, you were anxious and depressed for a really good reason. You were about to be eaten, right? You were in terrible danger. If you got injured, you would probably die.

I'm very bought in on the loneliness research. I do think this is one of our truly severe social problems, but you had something I have never seen before, which is it you can measure the lonesomeness of people all over the world by testing how often they wake up in their sleep. That was really ... that's one of those ones that has rung in my head since I read it. Can you talk a bit about that research?

Yeah. I was totally fascinated by this myself.

So everyone experiences something called micro-awakenings in their sleep sometimes, which you wouldn't register them, but you wake up very slightly and then you go back to sleep. So you are roused a little. And one of the things we know is that when people feel lonely, they experience much higher levels of micro-awakenings. We think that's because if you went to sleep on the savannas of Africa or our ancestors and you were lonely, you would be right to be vigilant and keep waking up because you weren't protected by the tribe, right? That's Professor Cacioppo best thesis, although you know it's hard to test that. But it's a very good proxy for loneliness. If people describe it as being lonely, they will certainly experience a lot more micro-awakenings.

And one of the pieces of research that Proefessor Cacioppo did is he went to spent time with this group called the Hutterites, which they live in a very no electricity off the grid. And what he found is the Hutterites experience virtually no micro-awakenings in their sleep. What this demonstrated is it's not just that loneliness is a kind of inevitable human malady. It's that it is a function of certain ways of living.