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Top Notch TV Fundamentals
F.1 Nice to Meet You
F.2 Who's that?
F.3 How do I get there?
F.4 Who's this?
F.5 You're late!
F.6 Do you like this blouse?
F.7 Welcome to my new apartment
F.8 What do you do in the morning
F.9 Making a weekend plan
F.10 Tonight I'm cooking
F.11 How was yout trip?
F.12 She has a fever
F.13 Do me a favor?
F.14 I'd like to get married

Top Notch TV 1
1.1 Giorgio Moretti
1.2 Interviewing Giorgio
1.3 Making a weekend plan
1.4 Paul gives directions
1.5 Cheryl's family
1.6 Bob's memory trick
1.7 What's in the salad
1.8 Eating healthy
1.9 Where are the tickets?
1.10 Paul and Machines
1.11 Bob's Exercise
1.12 Bob's Eexercise advice
1.13 Mr. Rashid's vacation
1.14 What a vacation!
1.15 Which do you prefer?
1.16 Fashion for Bob
1.17 A trip to South Africa
1.18 Paul's African Adventure
1.19 Bargaining
1.20 I'll leave the tip

Top Notch TV 2
2.1 Have we met before?
2.2 The Museum of Cheese
2.3 Choosing a movie
2.4 The movie star
2.5 Can I take a message
2.6 Hotel complaints
2.7 Paul's accident
2.8 A luxury van
2.9 How about a manicure?
2.10 Bob's haircut
2.11 A sit-down meal
2.12 What's for dessert?
2.13 What is that color?
2.14 Feeling blue?
2.15 Art for the office
2.16 Paul the artist
2.17 The computer expert
2.18 New office tech
2.19 Marie flirting
2.20 Bob the romantic

Top Notch TV 3
3.01 A little early
3.02 Etiquette in India
3.03 Are you ok?
3.04 Too much medicine
3.05 Rush job
3.06 Planning the party
3.07 Bob the dancer
3.08 The etiquette teacher
3.09 Planning the wedding
3.10 A new holiday
3.11 Somewhere safe
3.12 An epidemic in Finland
3.13 Bob's history book
3.14 Newspapers
3.15 New technology
3.16 Paul's phone buzzer
3.17 Discussing politics
3.18 I'm not a radical
3.19 Planning a honeymoon
3.20 A trip to Tahiti









isten in English

The Asteroid Crater

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Published: 1.01.2018
Level 6   |   Time: 3:10
Accent: British, American
Source: BBC Global News Podcast (12.27.2017)

TOEFL: A discussion on the effects of the asteroid event that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.

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You can download the file [ HERE ].

    

triangle Directions


  1. REVIEW the vocabulary.
  2. LISTEN to the audio above.
  3. ANSWER the questions.
  4. CHECK your answers (Show Answers)

triangle Vocabulary


  • irrevocably [adv] - in a way that cannot be reversed
  • slam [v] - hit
  • the fall out [n] -the effects
  • demise [n] - death
  • come into focus [exp] - become clear
  • a crater [n] - a large bowl-shaped hole in the Earth
  • an asteroid [n] - a large rock in outer space
  • sediments [n] - small particles of rock
  • the impact site [n] -the place the asteroid stuck the Earth
  • toxic [adj] - poisonous
  • vents [n] - rivers of gas
  • hydrothermal [adj] - related to heated water in the Earth's crust
  • straight after [exp] - immediately after (in time)
  • a Hiroshima worth of energy [exp] - the same amount of energy released by the nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima in WWII.
  • the rim [n] - the outer edge
  • degassed [v] - gas is removed
  • Sulphur [n] - a yellow chemical element (S)
  • soot [n] - black dust that comes from burning something
  • photosynthesis [n] - how plants turn light into chemical energy
  • inhibit [v] - prevent or restrain
  • the food chain [n] - the system of how organisms (life) are dependent on each other as a food source

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb,  [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression


triangle Comprehension Questions


  1. When did the asteroid hit the Earth?
    6 million years ago
    60 million years ago
    66 million years ago

  2. How fast was the asteroid moving?
    18 km/h
    18 km/m
    18 km/s

  3. Where did the asteroid hit the Earth?
    in northeastern Mexico
    in the Gulf of Mexico
    just north of Mexico

  4. What was the effect of the asteroid impact?
    Three quarters of all dinosaurs died.
    All of the animals on the Earth died.
    75% of all animal and plant life died.

  5. What surprised the researcher about the impact site?
    Life quickly recovered in the area.
    The crater that formed was very deep.
    A lot of gas was released after the impact.

  6. How much energy was released by the impact?
    the equivalent of the nuclear bomb dropped on Hiroshima
    the equivalent of 10 nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima
    the equivalent of 10 billion nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima

  7. How does the scientist describe the crater?
    It was surprisingly shallow.
    It was quite deep.
    It was not very wide.

  8. What happened to the sediments around the impact site?
    They released a lot of gas.
    They were destroyed.
    They were injected into the Earth's atmosphere.

  9. What effect did the release of Sulphur have on the Earth?
    It created numerous fires around the Earth.
    It increased the temperature of the Earth.
    It reduced the temperature of the Earth.

  10. How long did this effect last?
    a few months
    less than 20 years
    hundreds of years

  11. What inhibited photosynthesis?
    the release of Sulphur
    dust and soot in the atmosphere
    the freezing temperatures

  12. What effect did the inhibited photosynthesis have?
    It had a negative impact on the food chain.
    It had a positive impact on the food chain.
    It had no impact on the food chain.


triangle TOEFL Questions


  1. What is the discussion mainly about?
    (A) The death of the dinosaurs
    (B) How asteroids effect the Earth
    (C) New discoveries from research around an asteroid impact site
    (D) The types of gases released by asteroid impacts

  2. What facts does the man mention about the asteroid?
    [Click on four answers.]
    (A) How big the asteroid was
    (B) How fast the asteroid was traveling
    (C) Where the asteroid struck the Earth
    (D) When the asteroid struck the Earth
    (E) How the asteroid impact affected the Earth
    (F) What animals survived after the impact

  3. What can be inferred from this statement?

    (A) Life returned to the impact site more quickly than expected.
    (B) Life returned to the impact site more slowly than expected.
    (C) Surprisingly, life did not return to the impact site.
    (D) Life returned to the impact site much more quickly than to other areas.

  4. Why does the professor mention Hiroshima?
    (A) To show where the asteroid struck the Earth
    (B) To show where research is being done on the subject
    (C) To show how far away the asteroid was from land
    (D) To show how much energy was released by the asteroid impact

  5. What happened to the area right after the impact?
    (A) A deep crater formed and then filled with water.
    (B) Huge mountains formed and then collapsed.
    (C) Sediments disappeared from the area.
    (D) All water in the area was changed into ice.

  6. According to the professor, where did the Sulphur and carbon dioxide come from?
    (A) They were released from the sediments.
    (B) They were released from the asteroid.
    (C) They were released from the atmosphere.
    (D) They were released from water in the area.

  7. According to the professor, what effect did the release of Sulphur have on the Earth?
    (A) It cooled the Earth.
    (B) It poisoned the dinosaurs.
    (C) It filled in the crater.
    (D) It was absorbed by the oceans.

  8. What can be inferred about the release of soot and dust into the atmosphere?
    (A) It had a bigger impact on the Earth than the Sulphur that was released.
    (B) It mostly affected the area near the impact site.
    (C) It negatively affected plant life.
    (D) It was hard to measure.

  9. What is the professor referring to when she mentions "the primary food chain"?
    (A) Dinosaurs
    (B) Sediments
    (C) Small animals
    (D) Plant life


triangle Script



It was the one event which irrevocably changed our world. Sixty six billion years ago, a giant rock moving at 18 kilometers per second came out of the Northeastern sky and slammed into a shallow sea where today there is the Gulf of Mexico. The fallout from the impact resulted in the demise of three quarters of all plant and animal species including the dinosaurs. Precisely what happened on that day is now coming into clearer focus thanks to a project to drill into the crater made by the asteroid. Our science correspondent Jonathan Amos has been speaking to the lead researchers Joe Morgan and Sean Gulick.

One of our targets actually was to look at the earliest sediments that filled the crater because they're going to tell us about the recovery of life actually at the impact site. So we might have expected life to grow very very slowly here because there was probably quite a toxic environment. The ocean was probably was full of vents of hydrothermal circulation and all these sort of metals that were being put into the oceans. So we were expecting sort of life to recover very very slowly, and we were quite surprised. So we get really amazing fast recovery, high productivity sort of almost straight after the impact. Similar to the fastest recovery at other sites around the world.

Sean, you've been able to put the day back together in a sense.

Yeah, what's super exciting as just the energy of an impact crater. So I mean they're hitting at something like 10 billion Hiroshimas worth of energy. And so that creates an instantaneous hole that has a rim with mountains that are Himalayan in size. But then all that collapses within minutes in order to infill the crater and result in something that's almost twice as wide when the final crater forms, and not very deep, only maybe a kilometer deep.

It was a bad day for planet Earth, a bad day for the dinosaurs, a bad day for a lot of life on Earth. And you can say now some of the way that it was a bad day because of the nature of the rocks that this impactor hit and what it did to the climate.

Yeah that's right. So we now know a lot more about the target site We know a lot more about the sediments that were essentially degassed when the asteroid hits. So a very high pressure shock wave passes through the sediments, releases these gases sulfur and carbon dioxide injected into the Earth's atmosphere and all around the globe. So they have a dramatic effect all around the globe. So we think that the Sulfur itself cooled the Earth's surface by about 25 degrees centigrade for that first year after the impact. So that's an amazing sort of cold earth for us. And that lasted probably 3 to 16 years of these subfreezing temperatures. So life would have a big sort of struggle at that point. You know it would be nothing like life normally sort of previous to the impact that the temperatures had been like. We also have a little bit better idea of the soot and the dust that was up in the atmosphere and stayed there itself for several years. And that cuts out sunlight. So we think photosynthesis was seriously inhibiting for at least a year. So were cutting out the primary food chain basically - the organisms that photosynthesize and make the food that everything else eats off. So that's serious for all life on Earth.

Joe Morgan and Sean Gulick talking to Jonathan Amos.



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