TOEFL: Scientist have discovered a supernova that is behaving in an unusual way.
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The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
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[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
A supernova is the terminal explosion of a dying star, but scientists have discovered a very unusual example. It doesn't seem to follow the normal
pattern. So what is the normal pattern? A question for our science reporter Paul Rinkon.
Well, the normal pattern is that when a star is coming to the end of its life, it can go one of either two ways. It can either collapse into a black hole, or it can explode in this massive energetic event called a supernova. And that releases the energy equivalent to 100 million suns over quite a short space of time - about 100 days. What happened in this case is that it continued for a much longer time. And that's something that people haven't seen before. Astronomers hadn't seen this before, and this seems like a very very unusual object.
And when you say a much longer time?
Yeah. So the typical period duration for a supernova is about 100 days. It doesn't go beyond that. But this one continued for 600 days, and it continued releasing energy. There was no let up. So it released probably the amount of energy about 600 million suns, equivalent to that.
And what scientists think this means?
Well, what they think it means is that perhaps this is a very unusual type of sun that got so massive, got so big, and got so hot, that it actually produced antimatter in its core. Now this is the actual the opposite of matter. And what happens in this case is that the sun gets violently unstable. And instead of exploding in just one big go, releasing all its energy and then it's gone, it's reduced to this tiny neutron star, it kind of just lets it out slowly.
Now you keep saying that this is a very unusual event. Does this mean that they are going to have to rethink the way that they look at a supernova, or is this just a huge very energetic blip?
I think the universe is so big, and we haven't sampled enough of the sky. And we just haven't seen these stars before. What's also interesting is that they've seen something. They've seen an explosion from this object before - 50 years ago. And they just can't explain that. So this may actually have been instead of 600 days, it may have been going off essentially in its death throes for 60 years or longer and letting out these short explosions without actually destroying itself in one massive supernova as happens with most stars.
That was our science reporter Paul Rinkon.