TOEFL: Two professors offer contrasting opinions on the value of studying how genetics affects a person's intelligence.
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It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
É importante ler o vocabulário antes de assistir ao vídeo. Isso melhorará sua capacidade de entender o vídeo. Também ajudará você a entender como o novo vocabulário é usado naturalmente.
Na primeira vez que assistir ao vídeo, tente entender a situação geral.
Primeiro, tente responder a todas as perguntas de memória. Em seguida, assista novamente ao vídeo e tente responder às perguntas que você errou.
Assista ao vídeo novamente enquanto lê o roteiro. Ler e ouvir ao mesmo tempo ajudará você a ouvir cada palavra individualmente e a melhorar sua precisão auditiva.
Existem várias atividades diferentes que se concentram na preparação para o teste, vocabulário, gramática e estrutura de frases.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Esta atividade foi desenvolvida para melhorar a precisão e a complexidade das frases. A maioria dos alunos pode produzir as palavras-chave do conteúdo em uma frase. No entanto, eles têm dificuldade com precisão porque as palavras funcionais são difíceis ou podem parecer sem importância. Esta atividade ajudará os alunos a eliminar problemas com essas palavras funcionais, dando-lhes feedback imediato sobre os erros que estão cometendo. Também ajudará os alunos a desenvolver o uso de estruturas de sentenças mais naturais, variadas e complexas.
DICA: Diga a frase em voz alta. Observe os tipos de erro que você comete com frequência. Concentre-se nesses tipos de erros. (singular/plural, concordância sujeito-verbo, uso de artigos, preposições, gerúndios e infinitivos, cláusulas substantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, ordem das palavras e formas das palavras.)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.
Instrucciones: Escreva orações sobre o videoclipe usando as palavras-chave. Você pode alterar a forma da palavra ou adicionar palavras, mas não pode alterar a ordem das palavras.
지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.
host / talk / Gattaca / which / movie / advantage / people / have / through / genetic
The host talks about Gattaca, which is a movie about the advantages people have through (their) genetics.
professor / state / people / cognitive / ability / least / 50% / determine / DNA
The professor states (that) people's cognitive ability is at least 50% determined by DNA.
Dr. Plohman / colleagues / recently / publish / study / identify / 52 / gene / link / human / intelligence
Professor Plohman and his colleagues recently published a study that identifies 52 genes (that are) linked to human intelligence.
host / mention / eugenics / and / use / genetic / technology / improve / human
The host mentions eugenics and using genetic technology to improve humans.
teacher / know / children / differ / great / ability / learn
Teachers know (that) children differ greatly in their ability to learn.
factor / such / class / size / gender / difference / account / small / percentage / variance / intelligence.
Factors such as class size and gender difference account for a small percentage of variance in intelligence.
people / tend / blame / school / teacher / parent / if / child / struggle / school
People tend to blame (the) schools, teachers [and/or] parents [if/when] a child struggles in school.
People tend to blame (the) schools, teachers [and/or] parents [if/when] children struggle in school.
Charles / Darwin / young / cousin / Francis / Galton / pioneer / nature / nurture / debate
Charles Darwin's younger cousin, Francis Galton, pioneered the nature nurture debate.
he / also / start / study / eugenic / which / reach / peak / during / holocaust / Nazi Germany
He also started the study of eugenics, which reached its peak during the holocaust in Nazi Germany.
there / desire / increase / intelligent / reduce / criminal / through / study / genetic
There is a desire to increase intelligence and reduce criminality through the study of genetics.
Dr. Tavery / concern / ethical / implication / study / genetic / intelligence
Dr. Tavery is concerned with the ethical implications of studying the genetics of intelligence.
although / scientist / identify / 52 / gene / associate / IQ / they / not / know / how / gene / affect / intelligence
Although scientists have indentified 52 genes (that are) associated with IQ, they don't know how these genes affect intelligence.
after / similar / study / 2014 / other / researcher / try / determine / how / intelligence / gene / distribute / among / different / racial / group
After a similar study in 2014, other researchers tried to determine how the intelligence genes were distributed among different racial groups.
Dr. Tavery / believe / this / study / will / use / similar / way / next / five / year
Dr. Tavery believes (that) this study will be used in a similar way [within/in] the next five years.
Dr. Tavery / suggest / types / study / use / justify / inequality / society
Dr. Tavery suggests (that) these types of studies [are/will be] used to justify (the) inequality in society.
It's hard to imagine an idea more uncomfortable than the notion that some people's DNA means they were born to be smarter than others. It's a
discomfort exploited in the Hollywood science fiction thriller Gattaca. It paints a picture of a future in which your place in society is determined
by the supposed advantages written into your DNA. It's a disturbing notion unfair, even undemocratic. It violates our notions of equality. And yet if
you ask almost any behavioral scientist this is what you're likely to hear.
The heritability of intelligence has been studied for almost 100 years, and by now it's one of the most well documented findings in the behavioral sciences that individual differences in intelligence, say learning ability or general cognitive ability as it's called. Those individual differences are very substantially, at least 50 percent, are due to DNA differences between us. That is genetic differences, inherited DNA differences.
That's Professor Robert Plohman. He's a behavioral geneticist at the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London. Two weeks ago, he and his colleagues released a study identifying 52 genes linked to human intelligence. Genes where small differences in the DNA code made some people smarter than others. Today we're going to spend some time delving deep into what this means scientifically of course, but also from a social and ethical perspective because this is an area where these issues couldn't be more important. That's because whenever we talk about the genetics of intelligence, we bring in the ghosts of the past and the fears for the future. Like eugenics, using genetic technologies to make quote unquote improved humans. Or questions of genetic discrimination, like using people's supposed genetic disadvantages to support racist or antipoverty political agendas. So to start, let's return to Professor Plohman.
Basically, intelligence is learning ability. And any teacher knows that given a class of 30 students, some of them just pick stuff up very quickly, and others have to struggle to pick things up. And that could be skills like reading and math, or it could be more general comprehension. Children just differ a lot. And teachers know it isn't just how well they teach. By finding genes, it'll make the genetics more real. I mean as I say we've known that intelligence is heritable for decades. The things we worry about in school, like class size, it accounts for less than 1 percent of the variance. Gender differences, differences between boys and girls in math and verbal, less than 1 percent of the variance. So we get all bent out of shape about those things, and we ignore something that accounts for more than everything else put together. There's still a lot to play for in terms of getting people to understand first to recognize how different children are and the extent to which genetic differences account for those differences. And then secondly to respect those differences to a greater extent, not to assume that a child who has difficulty at school. You first blame the schools then you blame the teachers and you blame the parents and failing all that, you blame the child for not being motivated not having enough grit or whatever it is. But we need to recognize that children really do differ genetically. And that doesn't mean we give up on children. We just recognize that it's going to take a lot more effort to get some kids up to minimal levels of literacy and numeracy, whereas other children, you can't stop them from learning to read or doing math.
For a somewhat contrasting perspective, I’m now joined by Dr. James Tavery. Dr. Tavery works in applied ethics and the philosophy of science at the University of Utah. He's written on the ethical implications of studying genes for intelligence. Dr. Tavery, welcome to Quirks & Quarks.
Thanks. Happy to be with you.
Now you've studied how the controversies in the study of intelligence have evolved over the years, so can you give me a brief summary of that and take me up to where we are right now?
The father of the nature nurture debate and really the science of studying nature and nurture was Charles Darwin's younger cousin, Francis Galton. Interestingly, Galton was also the father of eugenics, and when Galton created that term it just meant good birth. But eugenics has a very seedy history in the US and Canada, overseas. And of course you know it reaches its absolutely grisly apex with the Holocaust in Nazi Germany. And so Galton wanted to develop a science of nature and nurture, and he wanted to do that because he wanted to change the world. That's a hundred or more years ago. What you see is throughout that history throughout the 20th century and into the present, lots of people trying to figure out, for whatever trait you're interested in intelligent schizophrenia criminality, what's genetic what's environmental. And that's they're interested in that question because they want to use the answer to intervene. Right? They want to see more intelligence and they want to see less criminality. But the very act of trying to you know carve up the world and decide who's better and who's best and to assess that based on what's in our bodies what's in our genome can lead to really really bad things.
Dr. Plohman said that this might help us identify those who need help or those who might be at a disadvantage.
And that strikes me as extremely optimistic. With the 52 genes that we're talking about, everybody is going to have you know sort of some set of what we might think of as better and worse variants in there. And the reality is you know what they did was they found genes that were associated with IQ. But none of the cases do we know precisely how they create that trait that we're interested in. The thought that we could sort of you know genotype kids and say, “Oh you've got more than 30 of the bad ones. Maybe we should think about putting you in a special program.” No way. If you want to help kids, get the lead out of their water. If you want to help kids, get more books in their home. I mean there's so many very straightforward environmental interventions that we know are going to have a positive impact on intelligence.
Does this work reduce or increase the ethical concerns around research into the genetics of intelligence?
Well I wouldn't say a single study reduces or increases it. But I do think it's certainly a study like this lends itself to abuses. So let me give you an example. Many of these same authors were on a paper that came out in 2014 that also looked for areas of the human genome that were associated with cognitive ability. And they found three at that time. Almost immediately afterwards the next year, other researchers came along to look for whether or not those three genes had different distributions in different racial groups because what they were interested in is whether or not minority groups are sort of genetically predisposed to being less intelligent than white people. It's offensive and it contributes to a kind of oppressive narrative that people who are less well-off are less well-off because of something in their genomes. I can guarantee you, within the next five years, the 52 genes that have been identified in this study, somebody is going to come along and try to see if those 52 genes are distributed differently in different racial groups. And so you can't blame the study authors for that, but there is a sense in which the research that they're doing opens the door. These people are lurking in the shadows waiting for these studies to be done so that they can pursue their more racialist interests.
Dr. Tavery thank you very much for your time.
It was my pleasure. Thanks for having me.