TOEFL: A professor talks about the science of pain.
You can download the file [ HERE ].
It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Pain / like / light / because / it / many / thing / same / time
Pain is like light because it is many things at the same time.
drive-state / something / demand / you / carry / action
A drive-state is something that demands (that) you carry out an action.
unlike / light / pain / complete / subjective
Unlike light, pain is completley subjective.
Pain / can / classify / many / different / way
Pain can be classified in many different ways.
while / some / people / very / sensitve / pain / other / people / can / put / lot / pain
While some people are very sensitve to pain, other people can put up with a lot of pain.
by / study / twin / scientist / discover / pain / sensitivity / almost / 50% / genetic
By studying twins, scientists have discovered (that) pain sensitivity is almost 50% genetic.
there / astound / amount / variation / way / different / people / report / pain
There is an astounding amount of variation in the way (that) different people report pain.
genetic / can / influence / people / sensitivity / pain / and / reaction / pain / medication
Genetics can influence people's sensitivity to pain and reaction to pain medication.
each / time / you / injury / you / become / sensitive / pain
Each time you have an injury, you become more sensitive to pain.
Each time you [get/are] injured, you become more sensitive to pain.
women / tend / sensitive / pain / men
Women tend to be more sensitive to pain than men (do).
We'll look at how from a scientific perspective doctors are still trying to understand the complexities, even mysteries, of how we feel pain. So to
talk about the scientific understanding of pain I'm joined by Dr. Jeff mogul. Dr. Mogul welcome to the program.
Thanks very much for having me.
Now this seems like a strange question but what exactly is pain?
Pain is a strange thing. It's sort of like lights which we learned a long time ago was two things at the same time. Pain is at least two things at the same time. It's a sensation - sort of like vision or hearing or touch, but it's also an emotion - like fear or anger. And it's also a third thing at the same time it's a drive state - like hunger or thirst. It's something that demands that you carry out an action.
So why is it so hard then to measure a person's pain?
I think the problem ultimately is that it's completely subjective. It's sort of intrinsically internal to the person in a way that vision and hearing are not. So with vision, there's energy out in the environment. There are photons, and you can measure how many photons there are hitting your eye. And usually the brightness corresponds very very well to the number of photons. But with pain it doesn't work like that at all. There are energies in the environment. There's pressure and there's heat and there's inflammation. But they don't correlate very well at all with the experience, the perception, that people have of pain and pain comes in different forms.
I mean you can have a needle prick and the end of your finger, but you could also have something like back pain or something really serious.
Exactly. You can divide pain up. You can split it into any number of different categories, and when you do so the biological basis completely changes. So there's no heat pain versus mechanical pain. And they're short lasting pain compared to long lasting pain. And there's pain to the skin compared to pain to the muscle compared to pain to the joints compared to pain to the visceral organs. And there's pretty good evidence that all of these things are very very different.
Why does there seem to be such a variability between the way people report pain? I mean somebody might complain a lot about some little thing and other people seem to be able to put up with a lot of pain.
Yeah, this is something that I've been studying practically my whole career. They've done twin studies and I can tell you that almost half the answer is genes. And a little bit more than half the answer are other environmental factors, probably the most important of which being how much pain experience have you had in your life before that.
How much of a variation could there be between one person and another given the same pain stimulus?
Oh an astounding amount of variation. So they've done studies like this. They once took 500 people in Bethesda, Maryland, and they gave them all the exact same thermal stimulus to their forearm and asked them to rate that on a scale from zero to 100. There were a few people at the low end that said that was about a four or a five out of 100. And then there were people at the high end that said it was a 95 or 96 of a hundred and every rating in between. So as much variability as you can imagine, we can demonstrate.
Now you mentioned genetics of pain. How is that influencing how we experience it?
Well on the one hand it's a large part of the answer. We know there are genes that influence pain sensitivity and susceptibility to developing chronic pain disorders and how well people respond to analgesics including the opioids like morphine.
So you're saying that some people are actually more sensitive to pain than others because of their genetics.
Oh 100 percent. It's just that I can't tell you which genes.
You also mentioned experience with pain. How does that come into it.
Yeah it turns out that one of the biggest risk factors for chronic pain and how long it\s going to last and how big a problem you're going to have with it is whether you've ever had pain before. And why that is no one really knows. The system is probably sensitized, and each time you have an injury or some sort of insult that causes pain, it appears to make things a little bit worse than it was before.
Okay so other than genetics and your experience with pain from the past, what other factors might influence how we experience pain?
Well the big one is sex and gender, and it is known that women, and this is contrary to what most people guess, but women are in fact more sensitive to pain. They represent the clear majority of pain patients.
Dr. Mogel, thank you very much.
Dr. Geoff Mogel is a professor in the Department of Psychology and Canada Research Chair in the genetics of pain at McGill University in Montreal.