Dog Intelligence

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Published: 5.11.2017
Level 6   |   Time: 4:22
Accent: Canadian
Source: Quirks & Quarks (5.06.2017)

TOEFL: A professor talks about the evolution of three different types of dog intelligence.

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You can download the file [ HERE ].

    

triangle Directions 목표 Direcciones


  1. READ the VOCABULARY

    It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.

  2. WATCH the VIDEO

    The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.

  3. ANSWER the QUESTIONS

    First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.

  4. WATCH and READ the SCRIPT

    Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.

  5. DO the ACTIVITIES

    There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.

  1. LEA el VOCABULARIO

    Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.

  2. VER el VIDEO

    La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.

  3. RESPONDE a las PREGUNTAS

    Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.

  4. MIRAR Y LEER

    Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.

  5. HACER LAS ACTIVIDADES

    Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.

  1. 어휘 읽기

    비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.

  2. 비디오 보기

    비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.

  3. 문제에 답하기

    먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.

  4. 비디오 보면서 대본 읽기

    대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.

  5. 액티비티 하기

    듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.

triangle Vocabulary 어휘 Vocabulario


  • ☐ ☐ ☐ play into [phv] - affect
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ clades [n] - a group of species that are related genetically
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ instinctive [adj] - natural way of thinking/acting
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ adaptive [adj] - able to adjust to a new situation
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ obedience [n] - following orders or rules
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ herding [v] - directing / guiding a group of animals
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a hound [n] - a type of dog
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ run down [phv] - chase and catch
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ prey [n] - the animal that another animal (predator) hunts
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a retriever [n] - a type of dog
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ lousy [adj] - not good / useless
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a blind [n] - a place to hide
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a cue [n] - a signal
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ game [n] - animals that are hunted
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ bred [adj] - raised
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ attentiveness [n] - attention / alertness
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ retrieve [v] - recover/ bring back
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ cluster [v] - come close together
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ malleable [adj] - easy to change
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ seat-of-the-pants [exp] - unplanned
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ domesticated [adj] - raised by humans
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a task [n] - a job / work
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ reared [adj] - raised
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ puppyhood [n] - the time when a dog is young
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ breeding [v] - raising
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the flip side [exp] - the opposite view
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ companion [n] - a good friend
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ empathetic [adj] - having empathy for someone/something

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression



triangle TOEFL Questions TOEFL 문제 Preguntas de TOEFL


  1. What is the talk mainly about?
    The relationship between dogs and humans.
    Why dogs are smarter than other animals.
    Which dogs are the most intelligent.

  2. How does the professor describe instinctive intelligence?
    A dog's ability to be taught new behaviors.
    The skills that dogs were bred to do.
    A dog's ability to learn on its own.

  3. How does the professor descibe adaptive intelligence?
    A dog's ability to be taught new behaviors.
    The skills that dogs were bred to do.
    A dog's ability to learn on its own.

  4. How does the professor describe working obedience intelligence?
    A dog's ability to be taught new behaviors.
    The skills that dogs were bred to do.
    A dog's ability to learn on its own.

  5. How do hounds demonstrate high instinctive intelligence?
    They are good at retrieving things.
    They are able to quickly learn new things from humans.
    They can do their tasks with little guidance from humans.

  6. Which type of intelligence is likely very high for retrievers?
    instinctive intelligence.
    adaptive intelligence.
    working obedience intelligence

  7. Why does the professor call retrievers "wonderful students"?
    They listen very carefully.
    They have high adaptive intelligence.
    They pay attention to humans and respond to commands.

  8. Which type of dog is the newest "invention"?
    hounds
    retrievers

  9. What does the professor mean when he says this?

    Some dogs were bred to take care of children.
    People wanted dogs to provide both social and utilitarian value.
    Some dogs don't interact well with children but are very smart.

  10. What does the professor mean when he says this?

    Some dogs have been taught to read.
    Dogs and humans are able to communicate very clearly.
    Dogs and humans have learned to understand each other.

  11. How do dogs differ from wolves in their response to a human pointing?
    Dogs will look in that directions, but wolves won't.
    Dogs won't look in that directions, but wolves will.
    Dogs will run in that directions, but wolves won't.

  12. What behavior shows that dogs are companions of humans?
    Humans and dogs live and work together.
    Humans and dogs share empathy with each other.
    Humans and dogs have a long history together.


triangle Summary 요약 Resumen [ ? ]

Summary

This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.

TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)

Resumen

Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.

CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).

요약

이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.

팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)


Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.

Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.

지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.


Sentence 1

all / dog / rough / equivalent / level / intelligence


All dogs have roughly an equivalent level of intelligence.



Sentence 2

Instinctive intelligence / what / dog / breed / do


Instinctive intelligence is what a dog is bred to do.



Sentence 3

Adaptive intelligence / what / dog / can / teach / self / do


Adaptive intelligence is what a dog can teach itself to do.



Sentence 4

Working and obedience intelligence / what / dog / can / teach / do / human


Working and obedience intelligence is what a dog can be taught to do by humans.



Sentence 5

people / tend / most / interest / dog / working and obedience intelligence


People tend to be most interested in dogs' working and obedience intelligence.
People tend to have the most interest in dogs' working and obedience intelligence.



Sentence 6

hound / which / oldest / dog / breed / not / learn / well


Hounds, which are the oldest dog breed, don't learn well.



Sentence 7

retreiver / fairly / recent / breed / able / learn / well


Retreivers, which are a fairly recent breed, are able to learn well.



Sentence 8

human / selective / breed / dog / least / 14 000 / year


Humans have been selectively breeding dogs for at least 14 000 years.



Sentence 9

if / you / point / something / dog / look / where / you / point


If you point at something, a dog will look where you point.



Sentence 10

if / you / point / something / wolf / look / hand


If you point at something, a wolf will look at your hand.



Sentence 11

Human / breed / dog / respond / signal / mood


Humans have been breeding dogs to respond to our signals and (our) moods.
Humans have bred dogs to respond to our signals and (our) moods.



triangle Discussion 논의 Discusión


  1. What new facts or ideas did you learn from the discussion? What facts were most interesting or surprising?
  2. What are three types of intelligence mentioned in the discussion? Do you think humans have similar types of intelligence? Which would be high and low for humans?
  3. In your opinion, which of the three intelligences is highest for cats? Lowest?
  4. Do you think big dogs or small dogs tend to be smarter? Why?
  5. What breeds do you think are quite smart (learn well)? Which breeds don't seem to learn well?
  6. Humans use dogs in numerous professional situations. Can you think of eight different ways humans use dogs? (8 dog jobs?)
  7. Below is a list of some of the smartest and dumbest dogs. What on the list is surprising?


    Brightest dogs
    Understanding of New Commands: Less than 5 repetitions.
    Obey First Command: 95% of the time or better.

    1. Border Collie
    2. Poodle
    3. German Shepherd
    4. Golden Retriever
    5. Doberman Pinscher
    6. Shetland Sheepdog
    7. Labrador Retriever
    8. Papillon
    9. Rottweiler
    10. Australian Cattle Dog

    Excellent working dogs
    Understanding of New Commands: 5 to 15 repetitions.
    Obey First Command: 85% of the time or better.

    11. Pembroke Welsh Corgi
    12. Miniature Schnauzer
    13. English Springer Spaniel
    14. Belgian Shepherd Dog (Tervuren)
    15. Schipperke, Belgian Sheepdog
    16. Collie, Keeshond
    17. German Shorthaired Pointer
    18. Flat-Coated Retriever, English Cocker Spaniel, Standard Schnauzer
    19. Brittany
    20. Cocker Spaniel
    21. Weimaraner
    22. Belgian Malinois, Bernese Mountain Dog
    23. Pomeranian
    24. Irish Water Spaniel
    25. Vizsla
    26. Cardigan Welsh Corgi

    Lowest degree of working and obedience intelligence
    Understanding of New Commands: 80 to 100 repetitions or more.
    Obey First Command: 25% of the time or worse.

    70. Shih Tzu
    71. Basset Hound
    72. Mastiff, Beagle
    73. Pekingese
    74. Bloodhound
    75. Borzoi
    76. Chow Chow
    77. Bulldog
    78. Basenji
    79. Afghan Hound

    [ See Full List ]

triangle Script 대본 Texto



So given what we've learned about the dog's evolutionary history, how might your dog's genetics play into its intelligence and behavior? Here to tell us a bit about that is Dr. Stanley Koren. Dr. Koren welcome to Quirks & Quarks.

Glad to be here.

Well when you saw this sort of genetic mapping that was happening, what went through your mind about how that relates to the intelligence of dogs?

Well in fact if you look at some of the clades, and a clade is just a group of different dogs or species which are related genetically. you'll find that they cluster together. And you tend to get dogs which are all roughly equivalent in terms of their overall intelligence.

Now you got to remember there's three kinds of canine intelligence. One is instinctive intelligence which is what the dog was bred to do, so herding dogs herd, and guarding dogs guard, and retrievers retrieve that sort of thing. The next is adaptive intelligence that's what a dog can learn to do for himself. And the other form is what we call working and obedience intelligence, which is the equivalent of school learning.

So if you look at that working in obedience intelligence, because that tends to be what the average person is most interested in, you tend to find out that certain dogs and certain groups of dogs which have particular characteristics tend not to do so well, and others tend to do very well. So the oldest of the dog breeds or the hounds. And the hounds were meant to be sort of independent hunters. And their job was to run that prey down without very much guidance from human beings. Well that makes them lousy students. On the other hand the retrievers, which are rather late inventions, were designed to sort of sit in a blind and wait for queue. You know don't scare the ducks, don't scare the game, and sit quietly, pay attention to me and I'll tell you when you have to run out retrieve this. And so those dogs make wonderful students because essentially we've bred attentiveness into them. And when you look at the clades, you tend to find these sort of clusters, so it's quite beautiful in that way.

So what is it about dogs that makes them so malleable? That we humans are able to shape them to our own liking almost?

We've been selectively doing this seat of the pants kind of behavior genetics for dogs for at least 14000 years. It was the first domesticated species. So we were building something which would be a co-worker with us, but you know we also wanted something which would interact with the kids and that sort of thing. And so we began to build these dogs so that not only did they respond to us but they began to read us and we could begin to read them. So take a very simple task. If I point to something my dog recognizes that that is a communication signal and he looks in that direction. But if I do that for a wolf, even if that Wolf has been reared since puppyhood in a human surrounding, the wolf doesn't look in the direction I point, but he looks at my hand. So one of the things which we've been doing is we have been breeding dogs and selecting them so that they respond to us, o ur signals, and our moods. And the flip side is that we've been breeding dogs so that we can read their moods and what they are feeling at a particular time. That builds your companion. If you're sharing in this sort of empathetic way, it's no longer you know just an animal, it's a friend not record.

Thank you very much for your time.

Thanks for having me.

Dr. Stanly Koran is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology at the University of British Columbia. And if you want to see Dr. Koren’s ranking of canine working and obedience intelligence go to CBC.ca/quirks.