Easy TV

Top Notch TV Fundamentals
F.1 Nice to Meet You
F.2 Who's that?
F.3 How do I get there?
F.4 Who's this?
F.5 You're late!
F.6 Do you like this blouse?
F.7 Welcome to my new apartment
F.8 What do you do in the morning
F.9 Making a weekend plan
F.10 Tonight I'm cooking
F.11 How was yout trip?
F.12 She has a fever
F.13 Do me a favor?
F.14 I'd like to get married

Top Notch TV 1
1.1 Giorgio Moretti
1.2 Interviewing Giorgio
1.3 Making a weekend plan
1.4 Paul gives directions
1.5 Cheryl's family
1.6 Bob's memory trick
1.7 What's in the salad
1.8 Eating healthy
1.9 Where are the tickets?
1.10 Paul and Machines
1.11 Bob's Exercise
1.12 Bob's Eexercise advice
1.13 Mr. Rashid's vacation
1.14 What a vacation!
1.15 Which do you prefer?
1.16 Fashion for Bob
1.17 A trip to South Africa
1.18 Paul's African Adventure
1.19 Bargaining
1.20 I'll leave the tip

Top Notch TV 2
2.1 Have we met before?
2.2 The Museum of Cheese
2.3 Choosing a movie
2.4 The movie star
2.5 Can I take a message
2.6 Hotel complaints
2.7 Paul's accident
2.8 A luxury van
2.9 How about a manicure?
2.10 Bob's haircut
2.11 A sit-down meal
2.12 What's for dessert?
2.13 What is that color?
2.14 Feeling blue?
2.15 Art for the office
2.16 Paul the artist
2.17 The computer expert
2.18 New office tech
2.19 Marie flirting
2.20 Bob the romantic

Top Notch TV 3
3.01 A little early
3.02 Etiquette in India
3.03 Are you ok?
3.04 Too much medicine
3.05 Rush job
3.06 Planning the party
3.07 Bob the dancer
3.08 The etiquette teacher
3.09 Planning the wedding
3.10 A new holiday
3.11 Somewhere safe
3.12 An epidemic in Finland
3.13 Bob's history book
3.14 Newspapers
3.15 New technology
3.16 Paul's phone buzzer
3.17 Discussing politics
3.18 I'm not a radical
3.19 Planning a honeymoon
3.20 A trip to Tahiti









isten in English

Saving Coral Reefs

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Published: 2.21.2018
Level 6   |   Time: 4:43
Accent: American
Source: TED Talks

Using modern technology, Mike Gil and his colleagues explore how coral reef fish behave, socialize and affect their ecosystems.


    

triangle Directions


  1. REVIEW the vocabulary / background.
  2. WATCH the video.
  3. ANSWER the questions.
  4. CHECK your answers. (Show Answers)

triangle Vocabulary


  • fascinated [adj] - your attention is fixed on
  • fantastic [exp] - great
  • dissect [v] - examine different parts
  • led [v] - caused
  • social network [n] - group that communicates together
  • priorities [n] - list of important things
  • beneficial [adv] - helpful
  • grade school [n] - elementary, middle, high school
  • cool [adj] - popular
  • alarm [adj] - warning
  • approaching [adj] - coming closer
  • predators [n] - hunters
  • ecosystems [n] - systems of life
  • depend on [exp] - use for our survival
  • coral reefs [n] - underwater plants in the ocean
  • critical [adj] - important
  • algae [n] - fish food in the ocean
  • left unchecked [exp] - not controlled
  • spy [v] - watch them secretly
  • massive [adj] - huge
  • remotely [adv] - from another place
  • feeding grounds [n] - areas where they eat
  • perspective [n] - viewing point
  • precise [adj] - exact
  • schools [n] - groups
  • inadvertently [adv] - unintentionally, not on purpose
  • vital [adj] - important
  • flees [v] - leaves, escapes
  • alert [v] - warn
  • coast is clear [exp] - no danger
  • species [n] - family of animal
  • analyses [n] - calculation, results
  • overfishing [n] - fishing too much
  • vulnerable [adj] - weak, open to attack
  • predict [v] - guess
  • remarkably [adv] - amazingly
  • sustainably [adv] - in a way that can continue forever

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb,  [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression


triangle Questions


  1. Why did Mike ask the opening question?
    It's a hook to get the audience's attention.
    He wants to know how many people are interested in the topic.
    He assumes everyone likes the sea.
    He is teaching the audience about copying.

  2. What caused people to raise their hands?
    Mike's question
    Careful thinking
    Social conditioning
    The first person to raise a hand

  3. What example of animals using copying behavior does he give?
    Birds copying alarm calls from other birds
    Predators learning bird calls
    Birds learning predators hunting calls
    Birds copying human sounds like parrots

  4. Why does Mike ask the question about affecting entire ecosystems?
    He is introducing the main topic of his talk.
    He is wondering out loud.
    He wants people to respond.
    He believes the answer is obvious.

  5. Where is he giving the lecture?
    America
    Asia
    Africa
    Europe

  6. What is the critical job that fish perform?
    Killing excess coral
    Eating algae
    Checking coral
    Eating coral

  7. What effect does algae have on coral reefs?
    Algae protect coral from fish.
    Algae are a food supply for coral.
    Algae help coral filter out polluted water.
    Algae kill coral.

  8. How does Mike try to understand the role fish can play in protecting reefs?
    He snorkels with them.
    He dives with them.
    He spies on them.
    He asks divers about them.

  9. Why does Mike think the fish know he is watching?
    One fish attacked the camera.
    Their patterns changed.
    They look at the camera.
    They stopped coming to eat.

  10. What pattern did Mike's team find?
    The fish were swimming in schools.
    The fish were not copying each other.
    Fish of the same species were copying each other.
    Fish of different species were copying each other.

  11. What were the results of the fish copying and communicating? (Check all that apply)
    They stayed longer.
    They played together.
    They ate more algae.
    They left quicker.

  12. What problems does overfishing cause for coral reefs? (Check all that apply)
    It removes fish.
    It makes fish more likely to hide.
    It makes fish less likely to eat algae.
    It disrupts the social network of fish.


triangle Script


Who here is fascinated by life under the sea?

Fantastic.

Now, what did we just do? Let's dissect this for a second. The simple action of an individual raising a hand led many others to do the same.Now, it's true that when individuals in a social network have common priorities, it's often beneficial to copy one another. Think back to grade school and dressing like the cool kids made you "cool." But copying behavior is also common in wild animals. For example, some birds copy the alarm calls of other birds to spread information about approaching predators. But could copying behavior in wild animals affect entire ecosystems that we humans depend on?

I was led to this question while studying coral reefs, which support millions of people through fisheries and tourism here in Africa and around the world. But coral reefs depend on fish that perform a critical job by eating algae. Because if left unchecked, these algae can kill coral and take over entire coral reefs, a costly change that is difficult or impossible to reverse.

So to understand how fish may prevent this, I spy on them while they're eating algae, which can be difficult for them to do in open parts of the reef exposed to predators, some of which, on rare occasion, appear to realize I'm watching them.

(Laughter)

So clearly, clearly, for reef fish, dining out can be scary. But I wanted to understand how these fish do their job in risky situations. So my colleagues and I put massive video camera stands in a coral reef to remotely monitor entire feeding grounds that produce a lot of algae but are exposed to predators. And this perspective from above shows us the feeding behavior and precise movements of many different fish,shown here with colored dots. And by analyzing thousands of fish movements to and from feeding grounds, we discovered a pattern.These fish, despite being from different species and not swimming in schools, were copying one another, such that one fish entering these dangerous feeding grounds could lead many others to do the same.And fish stayed for longer and ate more algae when they were surrounded by more feeding fish.

Now, this could be happening because even simple movements by individual fish can inadvertently communicate vital information. For example, if even one fish sees a predator and flees, this can alert many others to danger. And a fish safely entering feeding grounds can show others that the coast is clear.

So it turns out that even when these fish are different species, they are connected within social networks which can provide information on when it's safe to eat. And our analyses indicate that fish simply copying other fish in their social network could account for over 60 percent of the algae eaten by the fish community, and thus could be critical to the flow of energy and resources through coral reef ecosystems. But these findings also suggest that overfishing, a common problem in coral reefs,not only removes fish, but it could break up the social network of remaining fish, which may hide more and eat less algae because they're missing critical information. And this would make coral reefs more vulnerable than we currently predict.

So remarkably, fish social networks allow the actions of one to spread to many and could affect entire coral reefs, which feed millions of usand support the global economy for all of us.

Now, our discovery points us towards better ways to sustainably manage coral reefs, but it also shows us, we humans are not just affected by the actions of other humans, but we could be affected by the actions of individual fish on a distant coral reef through their simple copying behavior.

Thank you.

(Applause)



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